Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about theMost Wanted Job in IT Future for Farmers. Answer: This being the 21st century, a lot of things have transformed contemporary living including the way people live, eat, drink and work. Most of these changes have been brought about by technological advancements. Many people actually believe that technology will shift the types of work that people can do. According to , before the industrial revolution, most people worked as farmers, both in the 18th and 19th centuries, and only a small number of people worked in the industry. Few people worked as craftsmen. Most societies all over the world were agricultural communities and most men made a living from farming. In terms of population, only a small section, about 10 percent, of the general lived in towns . In the 19th century, work increased in the industries with people working in workshops although a large number still worked as farmers. The textile industry was born at this time originating in England . Through the 20th century work continued to shift to the industries. B etween 1900-1914, most economies were stable and unemployment was quite low .Fastforward to today, jobs have seen great transformation with the advent of modern technologies. People prefer to work in major industries including the health and technology industries. History shows technological advances are net job creators; it also shows that entirely new types of work will require uniquely human capabilities; and that technology will redefine our relationship to work in a socially beneficial way; and that we have the capacity to shape the future through our choices and not just be shaped by it. A sheer 10 years ago, mobile computing devices including smart phones did not exist. Social marketing was yet to be born and Google was yet to become a verb . We can therefore agree that rapid technology advancement, exploding population, global warming and increasing knowledge will all play a part in shaping our future jobs. In the next 10 to 20 years, certain jobs will vanish into the thin air, nevertheless many new jobs will also be created. Both the healthcare and technology industries are some of the worlds fastest growing sectors in Australia and in the entire world. A wide variety of jobs will therefore spring out and expand melodramatically in this industries in the next era . Therefore, some Information Technology (IT) related jobs that will emerge, and be in high demand in the future will including the following: Statistical Analysts. Every time a person swipes a credit, debit, or just any shopper cards, their details are stored in a huge data warehouse somewhere in the cyberspace. In addition, whenever a person writes a post on their social media platforms, or makes an opinion in Internet Relay chats, that too is data directed in a data center somewhere. Big data is revolutionary and enterprises are still in the process of trying to develop better procedures and databases to analyses huge data flows for businesses. Today's businesses are sinking in data, and most still dont know how to work this huge chunks of data and information and put it to good use. About 10 years from now, one of the jobs that will be in high demand is that of a statistical data analyst . Analyst will be required to analyze data and information to generate and recognize data patterns that will help businesses make informed decisions. Biomedical Engineers. For those with a passion in the medical world, the field of biomedical engineering, will play a central role in medical developments and improvements. The health industry is already looking into precision medicine which involves doing away with general and standard routine treatment procedures and concentrates on patient specific care and treatment . Imaging techniques and scanning technologies are expected to increase with medical advancements. The growth is expected to increase by 72 percent in 2018 . Therefore biomedical engineers that will implement technology to work will be on the increase and will create a huge for such jobs. Veterinary Technicians and Technologists. Numerous people have increasingly started considering for veterinary technicians and technologists and services including pet insurance. 10 years ago, some mocked these very services and are actually the ones going for it, making works in the veterinary sector increase in demand. Veterinary Technologists that will use information technology to perform their services will therefore be on the increase in future. System and web designers. Internet growth and access is alarming. Recent statistics claim that half the worlds population already have access to the Internet. It is undeniable that the people will increasingly and continually use the Internet. Business continue enhancing their web presence online and most have shifted their marketing and advertising procedures to include digital and social marketing. Because business will be competition with their rival online, system designers- people with expert skills to design web portals and blogs for business will be on the increase and will be among the top IT jobs for the future. System and web developing is currently an existing job position. However, this jobs will continue to be in high demand in the near future. With the growth and increases use of the Internet, this is just the beginning for such jobs. Most organizations are implementing cloud computing technologies which involve accessing computing resources including software and in frastructure, businesses will continue to launch their presence online and continue to store their data and information on the web. Both system and web designers as well as system developers will therefore be in high demand in future. Computer Systems Analysts is a job position that will transit in the future. Computer technology is increasingly being implemented in organization, and they require experts who can study this systems and customize them to suit business operations for increased business development. In the IT field. Therefore, this is a job to watch out for in the near future. Jobs in this sector have been projected to have increased by more than 24 percent in the last ten years, and are estimated to grow by over 22 percent in the next decade . Market Research Analysts. This represents a group of people whose jobs are, and will continue to develop in the coming future. People who love facts, figures and numbers will continue to grow. Future market research analysts will use technology advances to check data and assist businesses make knowledgeable with regards to improving business strategies. In the last 10 years, job development in this arena has been about 28 percent and expected to continue developing in future by over 28 percent increase. App and Systems developers. Mobile computing is progressively more becoming more ubiquitous. Almost every person owns a smart phone. Apart from developing system software, business are also developing apps applications for mobile computing devices. This is not limited to business only, it extends to individual persons, who want an app to do just anything. With the world preferring technology that is portable, mobile apps will continue to grow. And so will software development. This is an IT field that is not disappearing soon. Job development and growth for app developers has increased by over 28 percent in the last ten years, and is projected to develop by over 22 percent in the next ten years . Both software and app developers will continue to be in demand even in the near future. These are just IT jobs in the coming future. However, the most wanted IT job in future will be that of a Cyber-security specialist or if you like, Information security analyst. It matters not how cool or design- worthy mobile apps or software looks. It will not matter how user friendly it will be. System security, in my opinion is the most crucial aspect of computer systems. Technology has and will continue to develop. Electronic data has nowadays become a very key part of conducting business and so have hackers and attackers. These cyber-criminals infiltrate systems, manipulate and data and information including people identities for selling in the black market or just do it for fun. It is unfortunate, that there is a lack of skills for information security and cyber security analysts. Recent studies estimates reports that there are about 1,000 skilled experts in the field, while the arena necessitates between 10,000 and 30,000 experts. With all the current computer data breaches, i t makes complete sense that cyber security experts is and will continue to be a hot sector. Job growth in this sector has increased by 31 percent over the last 10 years and is anticipated to grow more than 30 percent in the coming decade. I therefore think that the most wanted It Job in the future will be that of a cyber-security expert or specialist. In conclusion, the world has seen many transitions with regards to working and jobs. From people working as farmers and craftsmen in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 20th century saw people develop industries including the textile industry that originated mostly from England. Then as the world continued to evolve, there was development of rural urban migration that saw more and more people working in the existing industries. The one thing that has however developed the way people work and perform their jobs. Technology has brought about the development of mobile computing devices that have totally transformed work procedures. Both hardware and software for the computer systems have continued to develop and change business policies and procedures. Other technologies including cloud computing advances, ERP systems, wireless technologies, computer networking, databases and database management systems(DBMSs), client- server architectures as well as peer to peer computer system architectu res, not forgetting Internet growth and the ever expanding world wide web(www) have all transformed business organizations. I think at this point, it is clear to confidently say that technological developments are truly the main driver of work and job shifts. The technology sector is also the one industry that is developing radically and this will continue to progress in the coming decades. We can only wait and see but one thing is for sure, that technology advances will no doubt change the work place. For instance, it is technology that has brought about mobility as a disruptive technology people working from home. It is also technology that has seen the concept of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) that has seen people carry their personal devices to work. People in most technologically advanced nations already accept as true that in the next 50 years,robotics and computer technology will replace most of the work humans do now .A report by The World Economic Forum in 2016 estimated that by 2020, more than 5 million jobs will be replaced by computerization and that that number will keep growing. Well, we will wait and see. However, we are allowed to make some future predictions as far as the most wanted job will be in the coming years. This paper has discussed that, and my conclusion is that since all this jobs depend on computer systems security, jobs related to cyber security and information security will be some of the most wanted ones. Hence, a cyber- security expert will be one of the most wanted IT job in future. References  J. Chalmers, "Technology, teaching and the future of work," ABC News , 14 September 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-08/chalmers-technology,-teaching-and-the-future-of-work/5726642. [Accessed 28 August 2017].  T. Lambert, "A BRIEF HISTORY OF WORK," Local Histories, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.localhistories.org/work.html. [Accessed 27 August 2017]. H. Wickford, "10 Most Needed Jobs in the Future," Chron.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://work.chron.com/10-needed-jobs-future-8123.html. [Accessed 28 August 2017]. A. Kiersz, "The 21 best jobs of the future," Business Insider , 14 December 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.businessinsider.com/the-21-best-jobs-of-the-future-2015-12?IR=T. [Accessed 28 August 2017]. N. L. o. Science, "What is precision medicine?," NIH , 27 August 2017. [Online]. Available: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/precisionmedicine/definition. [Accessed 30 August 2017]. I. L. Stats, "Internet Users," July 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/. [Accessed 30 August 2017]. C. Brown, "Here are the top 10 best jobs of the future," Cox Media Gropu, 31 March 2016. [Online]. Available: https://clark.com/ employment-military/10-best-future-jobs/. [Accessed 29 August 2017]. Kiplinger, "App Developer Statistics," Kiplinger.com, [Online]. Available: https://www.kiplinger.com/slideshow/business/T012-S001-best-jobs-for-the-future-2017/index.html. [Accessed 29 August 2017]. G. Moran, "The future of work," Fast Company, 31 March 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.fastcompany.com/40460798/why-the-atlanta-falcons-futuristic-new-stadium-has-throwback-pricing-2. [Accessed 28 August 2017].
Sunday, December 1, 2019
This is the waking up of a new epoch in natural doctrine supported in the Islamic imperium that affects societal constructions. civilizations and attitude towards larning. One may inquire. how do the characteristics of my society explicate its accomplishments in natural doctrine? And. how did Al-Kindi and Averroes change the class of history in natural doctrine? While it seems like the yearss of enlightenment in natural doctrine have slowed as a consequence of turbulence in lands because of warfare and economic prostrations in Europe and the Middle-East. However. fortunes are less terrible in Islamic imperium that now stretches from North Africa and Spain to India. In the treatment of natural doctrine recognition goes to the influential plants of Aristotle and Plato. the great Grecian philosophers because they had laid the current foundations of natural doctrine. Al-Kindi and Averroes had spent infinite clip reflecting on the doctrines and theories of Aristotle. Al-Kindi is a outstan ding natural philosopher life in the bosom of Islamic imperium in Baghdad. We will write a custom essay sample on Natural Philosophy in Islam Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Iraq. His influence and difficult work can be considered the roots of natural doctrine in Baghdad. Iraq. He has besides dedicated himself to historical surveies ( Linderberg. p. 176 ) provinces Ã¢â¬Å"Al-Kindi conceived his duty to be the completion. rectification. and communicating of this organic structure of ancient learningÃ¢â¬ . Al-Kindi is besides interested in optics and authored a celebrated book Ã¢â¬Å"De aspectibusÃ¢â¬ ( Ede A ; Cormack. p. 87 ) . Another noteworthy figure in natural doctrine is Averroes populating in Spain. He spends infinite clip reflecting on the scientific discipline and doctrines of Aristotle and writes commentary based on his apprehension of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s work and expands on his unfinished plants. He believes Ã¢â¬Å"Aristotle is the most of import philosopherÃ¢â¬ ( Lecture notes. January 10 ) . There is assortment of civilization. but most influential is the instructions of the faith Islam. Although. itÃ¢â¬â¢s a comparatively new imperium in the universe but the civilization it promotes through its faith has attracted many people into ch ange overing to Islam. Islamic imperium has peaceable population Ã¢â¬Å"they were people who wished to take part. in one manner or another. in the most advanced rational civilization availableÃ¢â¬ ( Lindberg. p. 171 ) . When there is freedom to derive cognition and spiritual persecution is non utmost. it is safe to state Islamic imperium has people from assortment of human ecology life in harmoniousness. In the Islamic imperium there was spiritual tolerance ( Ede A ; Cormack. p. 77 ) writes. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËPeople of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢ those who shared the Old Testament as a foundational spiritual papers. were officially tolerated by Islamic rulersÃ¢â¬ . The societal hierarchy in the Islamic imperium has lands that maps like any other land but with a strong spiritual brotherhood. Islamic imperium has been the most active imperium in human history to roll up cognition from all over the universe. In Europe there is a different state of affairs as described by ( Ede A ; Cormack. p. 75 ) . Ã¢â¬Å"fall of Rome disrupted all facets of life in Europe. The physical devastation of war and economic prostration destroyed many aggregations of texts. educational establishments fell into ruinsÃ¢â¬ . This sort of state of affairs disrupts the societal construction and the effects are besides felt in the neighbouring Islamic imperium because of the changeless wars between the imperiums and lands in the part. The representatives and bookmans of Islamic imperium have accumulated aggregate resources of information and books on natural doctrine and translated to Arabic and Latin to be studied by philosophers and bookmans. Muslim philosophers are lending much to the finds in scientific discipline. doctrines. mathematics. uranology. optics and music. In another statement ( Lindberg. p. 174 ) says. Ã¢â¬Å"Mathematics became indispensable for a broad assortment of commercial. legal. and governmental intents. One of the great finds in mathematics is Ã¢â¬Å"the creative activities of Ã¢â¬Ë0Ã¢â¬â¢ a figure that had neer existed before alternatively Ã¢â¬Å"0Ã¢â¬ meant absence of Numberss. Ã¢â¬ ( Lecture notes. January 10 ) . The Islamic scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ part to natural doctrine is alone because It is said by ( Lindberg. p. 165 ) that Ã¢â¬Å"this is the narrative of transmittal of larning. Ã¢â¬ Prognosis of the current Islamic educational construction shows small promotions in the hereafter. The attitude of Islamic imperium towards larning can be described as careless because deficiency of promotions ( Lindberg. p. 175 ) says. Ã¢â¬Å"Islamic instruction did nil to forbid the foreign scientific disciplines ; but neither did it make much to back up themÃ¢â¬ . However. we see a different side in Europe because they have easy begun to retrieve and reconstruct societies. The instruction of Islamic interlingual renditions and enlargement of Greek natural doctrines and other Islamic finds are now being taught in European universities. It is safe to state Islamic part to natural doctrine has changed the class of history and humanity can ship on a new journey of natural doctrine and progress into the hereafter.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
1 Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ Everyone has a dream. So did Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. In his famous Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ speech. He addresses serious issues concerning the issues of civil rights. The reason this speech was so successful and memorable was because he addressed it to a mixed audience of more than 200,000 civil rights supporters. Anybody who agreed with what he stood for marched to the nations capital to hear this speech. Civil Rights supporters could not only understand what he was saying but also relate to the cause. Martin Luther King Jr. made his speech so easy to understand because a lot of his audience may have been victims of slavery and many of them were just learning or still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to read. For that reason he had to put his speech into lament terms so that his audience could better understand his message. The devices that Martin Luther King used that made his speech such a success are repetition. For example, his use of Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ is const antly repeated. People often remember things that they hear over and over again. Not only did he repeat this phrase, but he also put it at the end of his speech, which is a very powerful tool in presenting an argument because people often remember most the last thing that they hear. It was not by accident that King, in writing this speech decided to repeat this particular phrase at the end of his speech. Another device he uses that was very effective, is quotes from other famous speeches that were also successful, for example Ã¢â¬Å"All men would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Ã¢â¬ Is a quote from Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Declaration of Independence. His quote of Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Declaration of Independence was also not a mistake, the reason for this was not only for the effectiveness, but because the march was planned to go from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgo... Free Essays on I Have A Dream Free Essays on I Have A Dream 1 Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ Everyone has a dream. So did Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. In his famous Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ speech. He addresses serious issues concerning the issues of civil rights. The reason this speech was so successful and memorable was because he addressed it to a mixed audience of more than 200,000 civil rights supporters. Anybody who agreed with what he stood for marched to the nations capital to hear this speech. Civil Rights supporters could not only understand what he was saying but also relate to the cause. Martin Luther King Jr. made his speech so easy to understand because a lot of his audience may have been victims of slavery and many of them were just learning or still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to read. For that reason he had to put his speech into lament terms so that his audience could better understand his message. The devices that Martin Luther King used that made his speech such a success are repetition. For example, his use of Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ is const antly repeated. People often remember things that they hear over and over again. Not only did he repeat this phrase, but he also put it at the end of his speech, which is a very powerful tool in presenting an argument because people often remember most the last thing that they hear. It was not by accident that King, in writing this speech decided to repeat this particular phrase at the end of his speech. Another device he uses that was very effective, is quotes from other famous speeches that were also successful, for example Ã¢â¬Å"All men would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Ã¢â¬ Is a quote from Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Declaration of Independence. His quote of Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Declaration of Independence was also not a mistake, the reason for this was not only for the effectiveness, but because the march was planned to go from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgo... Free Essays on I Have A Dream Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ During the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, African Americans and many others faced discrimination in jobs, housing, and education. They began to have to struggle to earn rights that they should have been awarded already. This became known as the Civil rights movement. In one city, to help to gain their right, the African Americans and others produced an organization. They called it Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA). They chose Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as their leader. Dr. Martin was a very smart and religious person. He graduated from Morehouse College and later earned a PH.D from Boston University. Being very educated, Dr. Martin admired Mohandas Ghandi. He too believed that violence wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the answer. So instead, he used civil disobedience, or non-violent protests against unjust laws. Ã¢â¬Å"We must use the weapon of love. We must have compassion, and understanding for those how hate us.Ã¢â¬ (Dr. King.) Dr. King also achieved many things. He achieved the Civil Rights Act. When he did this the congress ended Racial and Religious Discrimination by having President Johnson sign the act. (Doc. 5) Another achievement received by Dr. King was raising the percentage of African American voters. In 1960, percentages all across the south of America were greatly low, but by 1966 every southern state raised the percentage to almost have of what it was.(doc.6) In just six years Dr. King did so much, but within this time he helped the future generations a lot. By getting the Civil Rights Act signed, it protected the right of all citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ votes. It ended discrimination and segregation in public places. In 1965, the Voting Rights Act ended literacy tests. Making more African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s eligible to vote. Dr. King also opposed many things, for example discrimination of color. In 1963, he gave a speech, known as Ã¢â¬Å"I have a Dream.Ã¢â¬ Within his speech he explained that he believes that people should be seen for whom they are, not fo...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
5 Ingredients to Make your Blog Rock 5 Ingredients to Make your Blog Rock Blogs are hard to maintain, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s for sure. You have to constantly come up with new ideas for topics, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just the beginning. Then you have to actually write them, while you deal with writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block, all sorts of other demands on your time, and the fact that you would like to have some sort of life beyond your business and writing. But a blog is an essential part of your branding and growth, so you have to do it right. If your blog is currently suffering from the Ã¢â¬Å"blahs,Ã¢â¬ does not seem to be attracting new follower and/or, even worse, is losing readership, than you have to make some big changes. Here are 5 essential ingredients for every blog post you publish. Great Title and First Line The title is what will pique an interest. It will need to indicate that you are going to solve a problem or entertain your reader. Some of the best titles, according to analytics, will include the following: They will indicate that there is a list of things Ã¢â¬â look at this title, for example They will indicate a Ã¢â¬Å"How To,Ã¢â¬ so the reader knows she is going to learn something They will ask a question that points to a problem they typical readers may have They will indicate that a great story is about to be told The first line is short and sweet Ã¢â¬â it gives a startling fact, points to Ã¢â¬Å"painÃ¢â¬ of the reader, generates an immediate emotion, and so forth. It is what engages the reader and wants him/her to read on. If you have a landscaping company, for example, and you are writing a post on mole abatement, for example, you might begin a post with something like, Ã¢â¬Å"A mole has invaded my territory.Ã¢â¬ Or, even better, Ã¢â¬Å"I feel like the movie Caddyshack is re-playing in my back yard.Ã¢â¬ The reader is going to get a personal, probably humorous story about your battle with moles and then some good information on how to get rid of them. Lots of Media There is no excuse for not have photos, clip art, infographics, and even videos in your posts today. They are so easy to generate with all sorts of free tools, and images are available all over the web (just be sure to give credit). Any YouTube video can be edited and clipped and turned into a GIF file in 3 easy steps. When a reader looks at a post and sees only text, s/he will tend to bounce; media strategically placed throughout the post, however, will motivate the reader to stay. Have a Clear Purpose What are you trying to accomplish with this post? Are you featuring a customer or a team member? Are you writing about the latest charity event in which you and your team participated? Are you writing to solve a problem that you realize people have? Are you explaining how to do something? Or are you just writing to entertain today? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t combine purposes Ã¢â¬â it confuses the reader. Instead, write two separate posts. The Sharing Factor If you have not given your readers the opportunity to share, comment, or ask a question, you have failed. Think about it. What is the purpose of a blog anyway? It is to spread your brand and to develop lasting relationships with your readers. This only happens when your readers take some action. So have those sharing buttons easily found and prominent; have the ability for them to respond right then and there. Make it Scannable Having media to break up text is great. But the text has to be broken up too. Use sub-headings in bold and bullet points whenever possible. Remember, if you want to write essay pieces, you should take a college class. Short, sweet, broken up Ã¢â¬â thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the rule for text. There you have it Ã¢â¬â 5 things that will turn you blog into a place where people want to come.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Commercial law ( commercial contracts ) - Essay Example A contract is said to be formed only if such counter-offer is accepted. The common practice is that until acceptance is conveyed to the offeror, it is not valid. Some exceptions in this regard are a) if the offeror has waived the requisite for communication b) when acceptance is communicated by post, it will be effective on posting. Communication sent through fax, telephone, computer, telex or fax is not effective until received by the offeror. Moreover, it is arduous to find when exactly a telex, fax, a message left on a telephone answering machine or e-mail message is actually Ã¢â¬Å"received.Ã¢â¬ Decided case laws on the subject indicate that the time when such a message becomes effective relies on a number of issues including customary business practices, the anticipations of the contracting parties and the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of which of them should bear the onus as decided in Brinkbon Ltd v Stahag Stad Gmbh1. In case of acceptance through the e-mail, the time when it will be effective has not yet been considered by the courts. It has been recommended that in case of e-mail acceptance, the postal rule can be applied as an intermediate is involved. Conversely, it is argued that general rule will be applicable, since e-mail messages are delivered instantaneous and there is no facility to find out when the e-mail message is actually delivered. Any uncertainty provisions in the commercial contracts may make the contract non -binding. For instance, an agreement that a contract is to have a Ã¢â¬Ëregular force majeure stipulations Ã¢â¬Ëis not binding as the same is uncertain, since there are no Ã¢â¬Ëcustomary force majeure stipulations Ã¢â¬Ëas decided in the case Ã¢â¬Å"British Electrical and Associated Industries (Cardiff) Ltd v Patley Processing Ltd2. Ã¢â¬Å" In Ã¢â¬Å"G Scammell and Nephew Ltd v Ouston3, Ã¢â¬Å"it was viewed that an arrangement or
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Does the rotation of auditors improve the quality of auditing - Essay Example Based on all conjecture about such rotations and research studies on auditing tenure versus rotation, it would appear that the quality of auditing is actually improved by rotating auditing firms. The evidence Pozen (2012) argues that when an organisation decides to rotate auditors, there is the need for significant investment on behalf of the new auditing firm to gain important institutional knowledge about the industry which has already been learned by the incumbent auditing firm. Research studies have illustrated that there is reduced quality in auditing practice and competency during the initial years of appointment as the new auditing firm attempts to familiarise itself with specific business practices (Pozen 2012). Especially apparent in multi-national firms, new auditing companies must learn highly extensive information about corporate finance and accounting in a complex, global accounting environment. This requires time and perhaps even training, however once this information is gleaned, the auditor can provide better quality audits even though this quality took considerable time to develop and enhance. The International Federation of Accountants sees the situation from a rather different perspective outside of the time and labour investment in learning business processes. Elongated and long-standing relationships with existing auditing firms are recognised as becoming too cosy with their corporate employers which changes the dynamics of how incumbent auditing firms view business practices and ideologies. When long-standing relationships are developed with existing auditing firms, auditors tend to give favourable opinions, rather than unbiased opinions, about the corporate-mandated auditing processes. Existing auditor relationships that have endured over time leads to trust-building between business and auditor which, in turn, creates a situation where the auditor handles investigations carelessly and are more willing to accept business written statement s rather than inspect the situation to ensure that the business is actually performing compliance-based activities to general accounting standards (IFA 2010). Boxer (2008) absolutely agrees with the aforementioned notion of corporate cosiness developed over time and in the face of trust that endures through familiarity with business leaders. This author representing the Office of the Comptroller of the state of New Jersey refers to this scenario as familiarity fatigue stating that such familiarity with management leaders of the business leads to a lack of independence where professional ties create a complicity that reduces auditing effectiveness and lack of unbiased auditing support (Boxer 2008). When this type of relationship is developed, the auditor loses their scepticism about the oral and written information that is provided to the auditor by the company leadership and, therefore, begins to overlook important facts and figures associated with financial statement production dur ing the auditing processes. Boxer (2008) indicates yet another scenario that occurs, potentially, when maintaining enduring relationships with existing auditing firms. Auditors will have the tendency to desire corporate approval in the hopes of maintaining a continuous revenue
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Virtue Theory Essay Aristotle studied and explained a wide range of subjects ranging from science to politics and is widely recognized as one of the greatest philosophers of all time. One of his most important contributions to the study of humanities is his exploration and definition of moral virtue. In his book, The Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle explains different views about the nature of life in order to allow the reader to find what the main function of life is and how to successfully perform that function. For example, Aristotle states in his first book, in article one, Ã¢â¬Å"every art and every investigation, and similarly every action and pursuit is considered to aim at some good. Ã¢â¬ Hence, Aristotle defines the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ as that which all things should aim. However, what separates humans from other Ã¢â¬Å"thingsÃ¢â¬ is the fact that humans seek the good in order to achieve eudemonia, or happiness. In order to achieve this result, a human must function well, and would therefore be acting with rational activity. So, if a person performs the function of rational activity well, they have acted with moral reasoning, acting virtuously to achieve eudemonia. In summary, Aristotle believes the good, or virtue, is in a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s self-interest because of the results it produces. However, I strongly believe that, to classical philosophers, achieving virtue was a broader concept that its modern connotation suggests. It is commonly known that certain theories can be considered obsolete over time if not restated in a modern day context, because as society advances, there is a need for theories and ideas to accommodate and make room for such changes in order to maintain their relevance So, in order to adapt AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the good, also known as AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory, into modern day life, different theorists and philosophers became interested in reevaluating the theory and adding to it in order to achieve a successful and newer theory for humans to consider. I want to discuss the most popular theories recreated from AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory to prove that there is, in fact, a need to modernize and restate his original concept, there is not a need to disregard it or substantially add to it. I believe that his theory must simply be presented through a modern outlook to be used as a guideline as to how humans should act instead of a set group of rules that could possible contradict each other. There are many different theories to consider when trying to find the best adaptation of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory, they range from supplementary views to non-supplementary and non-criterialists. For example, Supplementalists such as James Rachels believe in supplementing AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the good with an independent theory of right action. Whereas, non-Supplementalists can be further split into criterialists such as Rosalind Hursthouse, who believes that happiness can be objective, and non-criterialists such as Julia Annas, who believes that virtue theory does not need any criteria of right action because a truly virtuous person would never get into a situation where a criteria of right action would be needed. These theories differ on core principles and methods of adaptation, some even disagree with parts of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory; however, they all have some form of agreement with respect to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the good and can be used to enhance it for its adaptation into modern day context. After my evaluations of each philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s view points, I have found the most practical and least contradicting theory in Julia AnnasÃ¢â¬â¢ essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Being Virtuous and Doing the Right Thing. Ã¢â¬ Her essay delves into not only the original concept of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory, but also discusses the consequences of abiding by those guidelines in modern day. Her theory allows AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory to remain intact, however she refreshes it to the modern connotation it needed to be more commonly accepted by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. However, when looking at the other popular views, James RachelsÃ¢â¬â¢ provides a detailed argument vouching for his supplementalist view point on the theory of the good in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Ethics of Virtue. Ã¢â¬ In his opinion, AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory shows an excellent motivation for moral action and gives us a better perspective of our decisions by enabling a different method of weighing our action. Yet, he also states that through AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory alone, there would be no reason for individuals to think that characteristics are virtues rather than vices. For example, courage could be a vice because there is no basis for asserting that courage is a virtue. Second, he adds Ã¢â¬Å"it is difficult to see how unsupplemented virtue theory could handle cases of moral conflictÃ¢â¬ (Rachels 2). For example, honesty can conflict with kindness if a certain circumstance presents itself. According to Rachels, a purely virtue-based morality must always be incomplete, since it could not by itself explain why certain character traits are not morally good and therefore, humans could never decipher if they are truly acting virtuously and experiencing eudemonia. In order to make such a distinction between what is and is not morally good, he concludes that a combined approach, supplementing AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory with an independent theory of right action, such as Kantianism or Utilitarianism, will allow for an adequate moral philosophy in modern day. However, there can be problems with supplementation because moral theories, such as Kantianism for example, suffer from the same problem of deciphering the conflict of virtues. Rachels evaluates a list of virtues such as benevolence, civility, fairness, justice and so on, describing them as traits of character that should be fostered in human beings. By doing so, he conveys to the reader the need for an independent theory of right action such as Kantianism to help distinguish whether or not it is a virtue or vice. However, he does not go into detail of the problems such independent theories of right action can run into. Say Rachels wants to supplement the virtue theory with kantianism, and a person posses the virtue of honesty, however, if that person were to be conflicted by Nazis asking where hidden refugees are, that person would have to tell the truth because that is what the Ã¢â¬Å"categorical imperativeÃ¢â¬ deems. Therefore, supplementing the virtue theory proves unnecessary and contradicting when trying to maintain using the virtue theory in modern day. Next, I chose to compare a theory opposing the supplementalist view such as the non-supplementalist view that Rosalind Hursthouse agrees with in her essay Ã¢â¬Å"Virtue Theory and Abortion. Ã¢â¬ However, she also adds a criterialist view point in that Ã¢â¬Å"an action is right, if and only if, it is what the virtuous agent would do in the circumstanceÃ¢â¬ (Hursthouse 225). In her paper, she primarily uses the example of abortion to demonstrate her criticism of the virtue theory and discuss what is needed to be applied to the theory for it to promote the correct virtuous answer in modern circumstances. She states that Ã¢â¬Å"virtue theory canÃ¢â¬â¢t get us anywhere in real moral issues because itÃ¢â¬â¢s bound to be all assertion and no argument. (Hursthouse 226),Ã¢â¬ therefore, she addresses the need for clear, virtuous guidance about what ought and ought not to be done when a person is stuck in a conflicting decision of virtues. In her example of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision of whether or not to have an abortion, she emphasizes the necessity of that guidance. However, in the evaluation of HursthouseÃ¢â¬â¢s paper, she states nine separate criticisms of virtue theory, demonstrating what she believes to be an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. She clearly makes the point that AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the good does not allow for a blatant answer in circumstances in which a person could either only do wrong or face the decision of acting for the good of human kind or for their own self interest. But, what she does not grasp is the simple fact that a virtuous person would never be in such situations to begin with, as Julia Annas later states. HursthouseÃ¢â¬â¢s example of abortion becomes invalid with the realization that a virtuous person would not have irresponsible sex to land herself in a situation of whether or not to have an abortion. She mostly disagrees with AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s overall concept; therefore, her need to recreate it in a more understandable method is diluted and consumed by her overall goal of asserting the need of a virtuous guidance for those stuck in unvirtuous situations. Julia Annas further addresses the contradictions Hursthouse makes in her essay Ã¢â¬Å"Being Virtuous and Doing the Right Things,Ã¢â¬ in that she does not follow the criterialist belief that Hursthouse believes is necessary to make the virtuous decision. As stated before, she uses the main contradiction that the circumstances where there is no right answer a virtuous person wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be in to begin with. Also, she believes that Ã¢â¬Å"we are not blank slates; we already have a firm views about right and wrong ways to act, worthy and unworthy ways to be (Annas 66),Ã¢â¬ and we become knowledgeable of what is right and wrong through a developmental process, not through some technical method of deciphering right from wrong. She believes that you become good at being virtuous the same way you become good in everything else, for example, in order be good at playing the piano, you must practice. Her statements help relate AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory to those confused about how to apply it in everyday life. She is providing the excuse of instinct and development for the vagueness of his original theory in order to make it more practical and achievable for those wanting to act with virtue. Overall, Annas proves her view deliberately and assertively throughout her paper. It becomes apparent that becoming a virtuous person requires a developmental process much like other activities in life. Also, through defying other theories, such as HursthouseÃ¢â¬â¢s, she shows how uncomplicated making a virtuous decision can be, instead of making such a decision seem unachievable and complicated in modern context. I agree with her statement that it is wrong to Ã¢â¬Å"force our everyday moral thoughts into a system of one-size-fits all kind, virtue ethics tells us to look elsewhere at what happens when we try to become a builder or pianist (Annas 73),Ã¢â¬ because I believe that is how I came to learn what was morally good, and how I am still learning what is right or wrong in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. She revives AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory for modern day by allowing its original vagueness to remain intact and not trying to rewrite the theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s initial context, while at the same time describing it as more of a guideline for humans to live by and a way to improve practical judgment in everyday life. In conclusion, AnnasÃ¢â¬â¢ non-supplementalist, non-criterialist outlook on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue theory provokes thought and consideration, but also relates to a reader, because if looked at closely, the virtuous developmental process can be easily recognizable in any readerÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood. Also, her analytical methods of revealing the problems in other theories help the reader to comprehend her theory easier. Annas leaves the reader stating Ã¢â¬Å"When it comes to working to find the right thing to do, we cannot shift the work to a theory, because we, unlike theories, are always learning, and so we are always learning and aspiring to do better (Annas 74). Ã¢â¬ Overall, Annas provides the best adaptation to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the good and provides a positive outlook on the methods of becoming virtuous without constraining the reader to believe that there is exact and deliberate steps a human must make in order to gain eudemonia. Her revision allows AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s concept to live on into modern day, and thus provides a well-rounded and current guideline to the betterment of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Works Cited Annas, Julia. Being Virtuous and Doing the Right Thing. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (2004): 61-75. Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. 325 B. C. Hursthouse, Rosalind. Virtue Theory and Abortion. Philosophy and Public Affairs 20. 3 (1991): 223-246. Rachel, James. The Ethics of Virtue. 1996. Norman R. Shultz. November 2010 http://www. normanrschultz. org/Courses/Ethics/Rachels_virtueethics. pdf.